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Hi all, I have a couple of questions that popped up while studying php; really not questions, but I want to get some confirmation that my deductions are correct from what I've figured out. I was getting very confused over the differences in the object-oriented mysqli and the procedural mysqli and translating from one to the other. I think I like using OOps better The reference list on w3 only shows the procedural syntax so I wanted to make sure I was coming up with the correct OOps. Things like 'mysqli_query($conn,$sql)' becomes '$conn->query($sql)'. I could see that quite clearly in the tutorial, but some others get a little hazy like 'mysqli_free_result($result)' becomes '$result->free_result'. Do I have this correct? and is there a rule about changing from one to the other - like whatever the object of the function is goes first in the OOps syntax, or something. Now I noticed that when you check for a connection error the OOps syntax says '$conn->connect_err' while the procedural syntax is 'mysqli_connect_error()' with nothing in the parenthesies. Is that because the connection object hasn't actually been established yet? or some other mysterious reason. I also had a quick question about .php files in general. The w3 said that a file with php in it should end with .php, but when I do that the server won't execute it - so I change it to html and its OK. Now if I have a file with exclusively php code and I don't 'echo' any output, but only 'return' a value, do I still need to write the <!DOCTYPE> and other tags like <head>, etc. Or can I start the file with <?php and end it with ?>. Like I said , I think I have these things correctly in my mind, but if I'm not right I want to nip it in the bud and make sure I'm off on a good foundation. I've experimented with different ideas, but if it doesn't work, sometimes you can't figure out what you did wrong. Thank you so much for your input and answers!!