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I have this simple code

        function addTable() {
            document.getElementById("one").insertAdjacentHTML('beforebegin', '<table border=1><tr><td>');
            document.getElementById("one").insertAdjacentHTML('afterend', '</td></tr></table>');
<body onload="addTable()">
    <div id="one">one</div>

When I called insertAdjacentHTML, why it does not do this?

<table border=1><tr><td>
                <div id="one">one</div>



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When you use insertAdjacentHTML it parses the HTML and creates nodes, and inserts those nodes.  Any unclosed HTML tags will be automatically closed.  So when you do the first line, it will automatically close that td, tr, and table and insert the new table element.  It's not an arbitrary string of HTML text that it inserts, it is entire nodes.

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